CHAPTER 1 AUTOMOTIVE BASICS1.1 Principal ComponentsToday's average car contains more than 15,000 separate, individual parts that must work together. These parts can grouped into four major categories: engine, body, chassis and electrical equipment. 1.2 EngineThe engine acts as the power unit. The internal combustion engine is most common: this obtains its power by burning a liquid fuel inside the engine cylinder. There are two types of engine :gasoline(also called a spark-ignition engine) and diesel(also called a compression-ignition engine).Both engines are called heat engines; the burning fuel generates heat which causes the gas inside the cylinder to increase its pressure and supply power to rotate a shaft connected to the transmission.1.3 BodyAn automobile body is a sheet metal shell with windows, doors, a hood, and a trunk deck built into it. It provides a protective covering for the engine, passengers, and cargo. The body is designed to keep passengers safe and comfortable. The body styling provides an attractive, colorful, modern appearance for the vehicle.1.4 ChassisThe chassis is an assembly of those systems that are the major operating part of a vehicle. The chassis includes the transmission, suspension, steering, and brake systems.Transmission systems ― conveys the drive to the wheels. The main components are clutch, gearbox, driveshaft, final drive, and differential.Suspension― absorbs the road shocks.Steering― controls the direction of the movement.Brake― slows down the vehicle.1.5 Electrical EquipmentThe electrical system supplies electricity for the ignition, horn, lights, heater, and starter. The electricity level is maintained by a charging circuit. This circuit consists of the battery, alternator (or generator). The battery stores electricity. The alternator changes the engine's mechanical energy into electrical energy and recharges the battery.New WordsPrincipal component 主要部件category 种类，类型body 车身chassis 底盘layout 布置power unit 动力装置internal combustion engine 内燃机cylinder 汽缸gasoline 汽油spark 火花ignition 点燃，点火diesel 柴油机compression 压缩shaft 轴transmission 传动系sheet metal 金属板shell 外壳hood （发动机）罩trunk deck 行李舱盖cargo 货物styling 样式assembly 总成，装配suspension 悬挂，悬置shock 冲击steering 转向，操纵brake 刹车，制动器clutch 离合器gearbox 变速器driveshaft 传动轴final drive 主减速器，后桥differential 差速器slow down （使）慢下来，减速horn 喇叭starter 起动机charge 充电alternator 交流发电机Review Questions1.List the main parts of an automobile?2.What are the common types of a vehicle according to body styling?3.Which systems does a chassis include and what are the main functions of the chassis?4.Why are suspension systems used on vehicles?